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Abnormal morphology of bovine spermatozoa Information on abnormal sperm morphology of the bull is widely scattered through many journals, conference proceedings, and chapters in a few books.
Anyone who ventures into a study on the subject will discover confusion in nomenclature and classification of sperm abnormalities as well as conflicting opinions as to the significance of many of the abnormal forms. For example, the terms diadem defect, buy kate spade purse craters, pouches, and vacuoles all refer to the same nuclear defect; simple bent tails, bent tails, bent midpieces, shepherd's crooks, translocating droplets, and distal reflexes of the midpiece all appear to refer to the same mid piece defect. The various abnormalities have been classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, major, and minor defects. In many cases, different workers have not agreed how the defects should be classified. Rarely does the literature indicate whether a "serious" defect is serious because the particular cell is not compatible with ovum fertilization or whether its occurrence in an ejaculate indicates a temporary or permanent reduction in the bull's fertility. The literature seldom indicates at what level a defect can be tolerated in semen without seriously affecting fertility. There is also a conflict of opinion as to whether many of the abnormal morphological forms have any significant effect on fertility at all. This book attempts to deal with many of these ambiguities. It will, however, soon be clear to the reader that this is only a beginning. Much research in the area of abnormal sperm morphology remains to be done.The purpose of this book is to bring together the information dispersed in the literature and add to it our own research and clinical experience. We have, insofar as possible and practical, discussed sperm abnormalities in terms of incidence, light and electron microscopic description, pathogenesis, significance to fertility, and the probable outcome of each type of case. Originally we intended to standardize the nomenclature of each defect, hoping that it might be adopted by the Canadian Association of Animal where to find kate spade Breeders as well as by Canadian veterinarians and spermatologists. However, since much of the terminology has descriptive merit and is probably well entrenched in the minds of many who study sperm morphology, it seemed wiser to describe an abnormality with the nomenclature we prefer but also include in the discussion the various other names it is known by. An extremely wide variety of abnormal morphological forms of spermatozoa occur. This book examines and discusses those that have been observed in large numbers in bull semen and appear to be specific types of abnormalities. A great many atypical forms occur in small numbers, most of which are related to one of the specific types discussed. It would be an impossible and fruitless task to try to discuss every slightly different variation of each type of abnormality.A good understanding of abnormal sperm morphology cannot be achieved without a basic understanding of the normal development and ultrastructure of spermatozoa. We have therefore included a full discussion of this subject. In addition, we have presented as much information as is feasible and applicable about the mechanisms of development of abnormal morphology. The intent was to provide a source of information that was of practical use to veterinarians and artificial insemination personnel who routinely face questions about and make judgment decisions on the fertility of bulls in natural service as well as on the fertility of frozen semen. In addition, we have tried to make this book simple and clear enough to be useful to the inexperienced undergraduate and yet comprehensive enough to serve as a starting point for graduate students and researchers interested in studying spermatology.Much research has been done and a great many papers have been written regarding spermatology in a wide variety of species. This book is devoted to the study of spermatology of the bull, particularly abnormal morphology. However, when deemed appropriate or helpful, information from studies done discount kate spade jewelry in laboratory animals or other domestic species has been included to shed light on possibly similar but unstudied findings in the bovine species. We are especially grateful to the following: the Canadian Association of Animal Breeders, which has given financial support for research, diagnostic work in spermatology, and the publication online shop kate spade of this book; Dr. Martin We nkoff, who was the first to interest Barth in the importance of sperm morphology, contributed two bulls for study of the Dag defect, and contributed to the text and some of the photographs for the stump tail defect; Dr. Erik Blom for his contribution of light and electron micrographs and his critical review of the book; Dr. Gerry McKay for his critical review of the book on behalf of the Canadian Association of Animal Breeders; Dr.
Gayle Sommer for her immense effort in reviewing the book for grammatical errors ; Dr. Ken Elmore and Dr. Randy Ott for their helpful suggestions and encouragement ; Pam Bowman for much technical assistance; and last but not least, Sharon Stodler for devoting many hours of her own time in typing the manuscript.
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